Critically Examining Environmental Justice Critiques of GHG


The Biden Administration has pledged to put the nation on track to achieve carbon neutrality by 2050 and simultaneously to promote environmental justice. Both goals are achievable and, indeed, are complementary. Their complementary nature is exemplified by the two existing North American regional programs for capping and reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Those programs, the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) governing the power sector and the California-Quebec program, have reduced GHG emissions while creating job growth and funding alternative energy programs to assist homeowners. Both promote environmental justice.

Michael Gerrard and John Dernbach have identified over a thousand policy instruments that can be used to achieve deep decarbonization across the economy. For every sector they examine, they identify the key tool as putting a price on carbon through auction-cap-and-trade programs. The Biden Administration has yet to reveal its regulatory strategy for achieving deep decarbonization.  However, as demonstrated in articles published in response to the Paris Agreement, EPA could use its international air pollution authority under section 115 of the Clean Air Act to initiate a call for state implementation plans that employ GHG cap-and-trade programs similar to the California program. EPA has used cap-and-trade effectively to address interstate transport of pollution and the Supreme Court affirmed EPA’s use of cost as a basis for interstate allocation of responsibility. EPA v. EME Homer City Generation.

Given the critical need to reduce GHG emissions quickly, the importance of existing legal authorization for the auction-cap-and-trade tool, and its successful use in existing regional programs, it is important that its use not be derailed by false claims. Such claims underlay criticism of the existing RGGI and California programs, based on concerns regarding their perceived impact on environmental justice (EJ) communities. I examine these claims in a recent paper published by ABA SEER, which argues that these claims are both factually and legally unsupported and that an auction with trading represents the method that best effectuates the goal of distributive justice. 

My ABA article debunks claims that the existing programs disserve environmental justice by (1) increasing energy prices with a disproportionate impact on disadvantaged populations, and (2) causing hot spots that will concentrate air pollutants harming health in disadvantaged neighborhoods. The article demonstrates that criticism based on costs lacks empirical support and is inconsistent with utility pricing law. Further, auction revenues from existing programs has been directed to benefit low-income communities. 

The second line of attack suggesting that a GHG auction-cap-trade-and-invest program will result in concentration of health-harming pollutants in low-income neighborhoods has even less support in law and fact but has perhaps the widest following.

Existing auction-cap-trade-and-invest programs have the principal and critically important goal of substantially reducing GHG emissions to address climate disruption, which has disproportionately high adverse impacts upon disadvantaged populations worldwide. These programs impose emissions reduction requirements above and beyond the requirements to comply with health-based standards for criteria and hazardous air pollutants. Pricing GHG emissions is one of the most effective tools to reduce those emissions. Carbon dioxide dissipates rapidly in the atmosphere and will not, itself, cause hot spots that can lead to adverse health impacts.  To the extent that the GHG programs succeed in discouraging continued operation of fossil fuel fired power plants and other combustion sources, these programs  also reduce emissions of other harmful pollutants. These pollutants include acid gases and acid gas aerosols, fine particulates, and metals, all of which can have significant acute and…

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